4th Space

The 4th Space is an inter- and transdisciplinary concept that describes how virtual communities emerge, grow, develop or disappear. It also describes how these communities influence and interact with the real/actual world trough the location, culture, medium and time of each individual member of the virtual community.

Several publications about the 4th Space are currently in peer review process


Whether as an individual or as an organization, negotiations are part of our everyday lives. In doing so, we are constantly confronted with the various socio-cultural, political, economic or linguistic challenges that we consciously and unconsciously face. This gives rise to many questions that need to be explored, but also opportunities to make negotiations more meaningful, innovative and sustainable.

More information: Negotiations.CH

Digital Innovation & Community

Innovative solutions emerge in the context of open exchange between individuals. This exchange takes place within the framework of «communities» and organizations that enable, coordinate and further develop it. Digitization is expanding this exchange to the extent that it no longer has to take place in a time- and place-bound manner.

More information: UPDATE Blog der ZHAW SML

Litigation PR

Litigation PR, the field of tension between legal communication and public relations/public affairs, is a challenge for society, business, science and politics. The opportunities to influence public opinion and the administration of justice in the context of a legal dispute by means of a close communication strategy are more diverse than ever.

More information: Litigation PR Conference

Science History

The «modern university» developed in the 19th century with the professionalization of education and thus the rise of academics as a «community» with its own distinctive features and rituals. This was accompanied by an internationalization of research and teaching, first in Europe, then the United States, and finally worldwide, as well as an institutionalization of exchange between researchers and students, made possible by a common understanding as a «community.»

More information: The Rise of the Modern PhD (2020)